DIMACS10 set: kronecker/kron_g500-logn18
Name kron_g500-logn18
Group DIMACS10
Matrix ID 2491
Num Rows 262,144
Num Cols 262,144
Nonzeros 21,165,908
Pattern Entries 21,165,908
Kind Undirected Multigraph
Symmetric Yes
Date 2010
Author D. Bader, J. Berry, S. Kahan, R. Murphy, E. Reidy, J. Willcock
Editor D. Bader, J. Berry, S. Kahan, R. Murphy, E. Reidy, J. Willcock
Structural Rank
Structural Rank Full
Num Dmperm Blocks
Strongly Connect Components 51,997
Num Explicit Zeros 0
Pattern Symmetry 100%
Numeric Symmetry 100%
Cholesky Candidate no
Positive Definite no
Type integer
Download MATLAB Rutherford Boeing Matrix Market
10th DIMACS Implementation Challenge:                                   
As stated on their main website (                                       
http://dimacs.rutgers.edu/Challenges/ ), the "DIMACS Implementation     
Challenges address questions of determining realistic algorithm         
performance where worst case analysis is overly pessimistic and         
probabilistic models are too unrealistic: experimentation can provide   
guides to realistic algorithm performance where analysis fails."        
For the 10th DIMACS Implementation Challenge, the two related           
problems of graph partitioning and graph clustering were chosen.        
Graph partitioning and graph clustering are among the aforementioned    
questions or problem areas where theoretical and practical results      
deviate significantly from each other, so that experimental outcomes    
are of particular interest.                                             
Problem Motivation                                                      
Graph partitioning and graph clustering are ubiquitous subtasks in      
many application areas. Generally speaking, both techniques aim at      
the identification of vertex subsets with many internal and few         
external edges. To name only a few, problems addressed by graph         
partitioning and graph clustering algorithms are:                       
    * What are the communities within an (online) social network?       
    * How do I speed up a numerical simulation by mapping it            
        efficiently onto a parallel computer?                           
    * How must components be organized on a computer chip such that     
        they can communicate efficiently with each other?               
    * What are the segments of a digital image?                         
    * Which functions are certain genes (most likely) responsible       
Challenge Goals                                                         
    * One goal of this Challenge is to create a reproducible picture    
        of the state-of-the-art in the area of graph partitioning       
        (GP) and graph clustering (GC) algorithms. To this end we       
        are identifying a standard set of benchmark instances and       
    * Moreover, after initiating a discussion with the community, we    
        would like to establish the most appropriate problem            
        formulations and objective functions for a variety of           
    * Another goal is to enable current researchers to compare their    
        codes with each other, in hopes of identifying the most         
        effective algorithmic innovations that have been proposed.      
    * The final goal is to publish proceedings containing results       
        presented at the Challenge workshop, and a book containing      
        the best of the proceedings papers.                             
Problems Addressed                                                      
The precise problem formulations need to be established in the course   
of the Challenge. The descriptions below serve as a starting point.     
    * Graph partitioning:                                               
      The most common formulation of the graph partitioning problem     
      for an undirected graph G = (V,E) asks for a division of V into   
      k pairwise disjoint subsets (partitions) such that all            
      partitions are of approximately equal size and the edge-cut,      
      i.e., the total number of edges having their incident nodes in    
      different subdomains, is minimized. The problem is known to be    
    * Graph clustering:                                                 
      Clustering is an important tool for investigating the             
      structural properties of data. Generally speaking, clustering     
      refers to the grouping of objects such that objects in the same   
      cluster are more similar to each other than to objects of         
      different clusters. The similarity measure depends on the         
      underlying application. Clustering graphs usually refers to the   
      identification of vertex subsets (clusters) that have             
      significantly more internal edges (to vertices of the same        
      cluster) than external ones (to vertices of another cluster).     
There are 10 data sets in the DIMACS10 collection:                      
Kronecker:  synthetic graphs from the Graph500 benchmark                
dyn-frames: frames from a 2D dynamic simulation                         
Delaunay:   Delaunay triangulations of random points in the plane       
coauthor:   citation and co-author networks                             
streets:    real-world street networks                                  
Walshaw:    Chris Walshaw's graph partitioning archive                  
matrix:     graphs from the UF collection (not added here)              
random:     random geometric graphs (random points in the unit square)  
clustering: real-world graphs commonly used as benchmarks               
numerical:  graphs from numerical simulation                            
Some of the graphs already exist in the UF Collection.  In some cases,  
the original graph is unsymmetric, with values, whereas the DIMACS      
graph is the symmetrized pattern of A+A'.  Rather than add duplicate    
patterns to the UF Collection, a MATLAB script is provided at           
http://www.cise.ufl.edu/research/sparse/dimacs10 which downloads        
each matrix from the UF Collection via UFget, and then performs whatever
operation is required to convert the matrix to the DIMACS graph problem.
Also posted at that page is a MATLAB code (metis_graph) for reading the 
DIMACS *.graph files into MATLAB.                                       
Kronecker:  Kronecker Generator Graphs                                  
The original Kronecker files contain self-loops and multiple edges.     
These properties are also present in real-world data sets. However,     
some tools cannot handle these "artifacts" at the moment. That is why   
we present "cleansed" versions of the data sets as well.  For the       
Challenge you should expect to be confronted with the original data     
with self-loops and multiple edges. However, the final decision on      
this issue will be made based on participant feedback.                  
All files have been generated with the R-MAT parameters A=0.57, B=0.19, 
C=0.19, and D=1-(A+B+C)=0.05 and edgefactor=48, i.e., the number of     
edges equals 48*n, where n is the number of vertices. Details about the 
generator and the parameter meanings can be found on the Graph500       
website.  ( http://www.graph500.org/Specifications.html )               
There are 12 graphs in the DIMACS10 test set at                         
http://www.cc.gatech.edu/dimacs10/index.shtml .  Them come in 6 pairs.  
One graph in each pair is a multigraph, with self-edges.  The other     
graph is the nonzero pattern of the first (binary), with self-edges     
removed.  MATLAB cannot directly represent multigraph, so in the UF     
Collection the unweighted multigraph G is represented as a matrix A     
where A(i,j) is an integer equal to the number edges (i,j) in G.        
The binary graphs include the word 'simple' in their                    
name In the UF Collection, only the multigraph is included,             
since the simple graph can be constructed from the multigraph.          
If A is the multigraph, the simple graph S can be computed as:          
   S = spones (tril (A,-1)) + spones (triu (A,1)) ;                     
DIMACS10 graph:                        UF matrix:                       
---------------                        -------------                    
kronecker/kron_g500-logn16             DIMACS10/kron_g500-logn16        
kronecker/kron_g500-logn17             DIMACS10/kron_g500-logn17        
kronecker/kron_g500-logn18             DIMACS10/kron_g500-logn18        
kronecker/kron_g500-logn19             DIMACS10/kron_g500-logn19        
kronecker/kron_g500-logn20             DIMACS10/kron_g500-logn20        
kronecker/kron_g500-logn21             DIMACS10/kron_g500-logn21        
References: "Introducing the Graph 500," Richard C. Murphy, Kyle B.     
Wheeler, Brian W. Barrett, James A. Ang, Cray User's Group (CUG), May   
5, 2010.                                                                
D.A. Bader, J. Feo, J. Gilbert, J. Kepner, D. Koester, E. Loh, K.       
Madduri, W. Mann, Theresa Meuse, HPCS Scalable Synthetic Compact        
Applications #2 Graph Analysis (SSCA#2 v2.2 Specification), 5           
September 2007.                                                         
D. Chakrabarti, Y. Zhan, and C. Faloutsos, R-MAT: A recursive model     
for graph mining, SIAM Data Mining 2004.                                
Section 17.6, Algorithms in C (third edition). Part 5 Graph             
Algorithms, Robert Sedgewick (Programs 17.7 and 17.8)                   
P. Sanders, Random Permutations on Distributed, External and            
Hierarchical Memory, Information Processing Letters 67 (1988) pp        
"DFS: A Simple to Write Yet Difficult to Execute Benchmark," Richard C. 
Murphy, Jonathan Berry, William McLendon, Bruce Hendrickson, Douglas    
Gregor, Andrew Lumsdaine, IEEE International Symposium on Workload      
Characterizations 2006 (IISWC06), San Jose, CA, 25-27 October 2006.     
---- sample code for generating these matrices:                         
function ij = kronecker_generator (SCALE, edgefactor)                   
%% Generate an edgelist according to the Graph500                       
%% parameters.  In this sample, the edge list is                        
%% returned in an array with two rows, where StartVertex                
%% is first row and EndVertex is the second.  The vertex                
%% labels start at zero.                                                
%% Example, creating a sparse matrix for viewing:                       
%%   ij = kronecker_generator (10, 16);                                 
%%   G = sparse (ij(1,:)+1, ij(2,:)+1, ones (1, size (ij, 2)));         
%%   spy (G);                                                           
%% The spy plot should appear fairly dense. Any locality                
%% is removed by the final permutations.                                
  %% Set number of vertices.                                            
  N = 2^SCALE;                                                          
  %% Set number of edges.                                               
  M = edgefactor * N;                                                   
  %% Set initiator probabilities.                                       
  [A, B, C] = deal (0.57, 0.19, 0.19);                                  
  %% Create index arrays.                                               
  ij = ones (2, M);                                                     
  %% Loop over each order of bit.                                       
  ab = A + B;                                                           
  c_norm = C/(1 - (A + B));                                             
  a_norm = A/(A + B);                                                   
  for ib = 1:SCALE,                                                     
    %% Compare with probabilities and set bits of indices.              
    ii_bit = rand (1, M) > ab;                                          
    jj_bit = rand (1, M) > ( c_norm * ii_bit + a_norm * not (ii_bit) ); 
    ij = ij + 2^(ib-1) * [ii_bit; jj_bit];                              
  %% Permute vertex labels                                              
  p = randperm (N);                                                     
  ij = p(ij);                                                           
  %% Permute the edge list                                              
  p = randperm (M);                                                     
  ij = ij(:, p);                                                        
  %% Adjust to zero-based labels.                                       
  ij = ij - 1;                                                          
function G = kernel_1 (ij)                                              
%% Compute a sparse adjacency matrix representation                     
%% of the graph with edges from ij.                                     
  %% Remove self-edges.                                                 
  ij(:, ij(1,:) == ij(2,:)) = [];                                       
  %% Adjust away from zero labels.                                      
  ij = ij + 1;                                                          
  %% Find the maximum label for sizing.                                 
  N = max (max (ij));                                                   
  %% Create the matrix, ensuring it is square.                          
  G = sparse (ij(1,:), ij(2,:), ones (1, size (ij, 2)), N, N);          
  %% Symmetrize to model an undirected graph.                           
  G = spones (G + G.');